130 Estudios que vinculan a las Vacunas con Problemas Neurológicos y de Autoinmunidad comunes al Autismo
130 Studies Linking Vaccines To Neurological And Autoimmune Issues Common To Autism Ver Estudios
130 Studies Linking Vaccines To Neurological And Autoimmune Issues Common To Autism Ver Estudios
Temporal Association of Certain Neuropsychiatric Disorders Following Vaccination of Children and Adolescents: A Pilot Case-Control Study Frontiers in Psychiatry, January 2017, Douglas L. Leslie, Robert A. Kobre, Brian J. Richmand
Summary: "Subjects with newly diagnosed anorexia nervosa were more likely than controls to have had any vaccination in the previous 3 months [hazard ratio (HR) 1.80, 95% confidence interval 1.21-2.68]. Influenza vaccinations during the prior 3, 6, and 12 months were also associated with incident diagnoses of AN, OCD, and an anxiety disorder. Several other associations were also significant with HRs greater than 1.40 (hepatitis A with OCD and AN; hepatitis B with AN; and meningitis with AN and chronic tic disorder). This pilot epidemiologic analysis implies that the onset of some neuropsychiatric disorders may be temporally related to prior vaccinations in a subset of individuals."
New Quality-Control Investigations on Vaccines: Micro- and Nanocontamination International Journal of Vaccines and Vaccination, January 2017, Dr. Antonietta M. Gatti, Stefano Montanari
Summary: Scientists found contaminants in all vaccines that are not listed on the label of the vaccines. "The analyses carried out show that in all samples checked vaccines contain non biocompatible and bio-persistent foreign bodies which are not declared by the Producers, against which the body reacts in any case. This new investigation represents a new quality control that can be adopted to assess the safety of a vaccine. Our hypothesis is that this contamination is unintentional, since it is probably due to polluted components or procedures of industrial processes (e.g. filtrations) used to produce vaccines, not investigated and not detected by the Producers. If our hypothesis is actually the case, a close inspection of the working places and the full knowledge of the whole procedure of vaccine preparation would probably allow to eliminate the problem."
Autoimmune/Inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants and Sjogren's Syndrome IMAJ VOL 18, March-April 2016, Serena Colafrancesco, Carlo Perricone, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Summary: "Several case reports have suggested that both vaccines and silicone may trigger the development of SS [Sjo?gren's syndrome, a chronic systemic autoimmune inflammatory condition involving the exocrine glands]. Aluminum is one of the principal adjuvants used in vaccine formulation and may be responsible for the development of ASIA syndrome. It seems that its ability to behave as an adjuvant might be related to evidence that aluminum salts seem to both induce the activation of dendritic cells and complement components and increase the level of chemokine secretion at the injection site... other vaccines including Bacillus Calmette Gue?rin (BCG), hepatitis A and/or B and human papillomavirus, should be avoided or considered only in selected patients... There is considerable evidence raising the possibility of vaccine-triggered autoimmunity"
Combining Childhood Vaccines at One Visit Is Not Safe Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons, Summer 2016, Neil Z. Miller
Summary: "Our study showed that infants who receive several vaccines concurrently, as recommended by CDC, are significantly more likely to be hospitalized or die when compared with infants who receive fewer vaccines simultaneously. It also showed that reported adverse effects were more likely to lead to hospitalization or death in younger infants. The safety of CDC's childhood vaccination schedule was never affirmed in clinical studies. Vaccines are administered to millions of infants every year, yet health authorities have no scientific data from synergistic toxicity studies on all combinations of vaccines that infants are likely to receive. National vaccination campaigns must be supported by scientific evidence."
Behavioral abnormalities in female mice following administration of aluminum adjuvants and the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine Gardasil Immunol Res, July 2016, Rotem Inbar, Ronen Weiss, Lucija Tomljenovic, Maria-Teresa Arango, Yael Deri, Christopher A, Shaw, Joab Chapman, Miri Blank, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Summary: "Vaccine adjuvants and vaccines may induce autoimmune and inflammatory manifestations in susceptible individuals. To date most human vaccine trials utilize aluminum (Al) adjuvants as placebos despite much evidence showing that Al in vaccine-relevant exposures can be toxic to humans and animals...It appears that Gardasil via its Al adjuvant and HPV antigens has the ability to trigger neuroinflammation and autoimmune reactions, further leading to behavioral changes...In light of these findings, this study highlights the necessity of proceeding with caution with respect to further mass-immunization practices with a vaccine of yet unproven long-term clinical benefit in cervical cancer prevention"
Aluminum in Childhood Vaccines Is Unsafe Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons, Winter 2016, Neil Z. Miller
Summary: "Infants and young children throughout the world receive high quantities of aluminum from multiple inoculations. Incremental changes to the vaccination schedule during the past several years significantly increased the quantity of aluminum in childhood shots. Numerous studies provide compelling evidence that injected aluminum can be detrimental to health. Aluminum is capable of remaining in cells long after vaccination and may cause neurologic and autoimmune disorders. During early development, the child's brain is more susceptible to toxins and the kidneys are less able to eliminate them. Thus, children have a greater risk than adults of adverse reactions to aluminum in vaccines. Millions of children every year are injected with vaccines containing mercury and aluminum despite well-established experimental evidence of the potential for additive or synergistic toxicity when an organism is exposed to two or more toxic metals."
Aluminium in brain tissue in familial Alzheimer's disease Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, November 2016, Ambreen Mirza, Andrew King, Claire Troakes, Christopher Exley
Summary: "Aluminium has been shown to be present in brain tissue in sporadic Alzheimer's disease. We have made the first ever measurements of aluminium in brain tissue from 12 donors diagnosed with familial Alzheimer's disease. The concentrations of aluminium were extremely high, for example, there were values in excess of 10??g/g tissue dry wt. in 5 of the 12 individuals. Overall, the concentrations were higher than all previous measurements of brain aluminium except cases of known aluminium-induced encephalopathy. We have supported our quantitative analyses using a novel method of aluminium-selective fluorescence microscopy to visualise aluminium in all lobes of every brain investigated. The unique quantitative data and the stunning images of aluminium in familial Alzheimer's disease brain tissue raise the spectre of aluminium's role in this devastating disease."
Evidence that Food Proteins in Vaccines Cause the Development of Food Allergies and Its Implications for Vaccine Policy Journal of Developing Drugs, 2015, Vinu Arumugham
Summary: "Numerous studies have demonstrated that food proteins contained in vaccines/injections induce food allergy. The IOM's authoritative report has concluded the same. Allergen quantities in vaccines are unregulated. Today kids are more atopic. C-section births bias the newborn's immune system towards IgE synthesis due to sub-optimal gut microbiome . C-section birth rates have gone up 50% in the last few decades. The vaccine schedule has increased the number of vaccine shots to 30-40 and up to five vaccines are simultaneously administered to children. Vaccines also contain adjuvants such as aluminum compounds and pertussis toxin that bias towards IgE synthesis. Given these conditions, the predictable and observed outcome is a food allergy epidemic."
Transcriptomic Analyses of Neurotoxic Effects in Mouse Brain After Intermittent Neonatal Administration of Thimerosal, Toxicological Sciences, March 2014, Xialong Li, Fengqin Qu, Wenjuan Xe, Fengli Wang, Hongmei Lui
Summary: "Thimerosal-treated mice exhibited neural development delay, social interaction deficiency, and inclination of depression. Apparent neuropathological changes were also observed in adult mice neonatally treated with thimerosal. High-throughput RNA sequencing of autistic-behaved mice brains revealed the alternation of a number of canonical path- ways involving neuronal development, neuronal synaptic function, and the dysregulation of endocrine system."
A Dose-Response Relationship between Organic Mercury Exposure from Thimerosal-Containing Vaccines and Neurodevelopmental Disorders Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 2014, David A. Geier, Brian S. Hooker, Janet K. Kern, Paul G. King, Lisa K. Sykes and Mark R. Geier
Summary: "On a per microgram of organic-Hg basis, PDD (odds ratio (OR) = 1.054), specific developmental delay (OR = 1.035), tic disorder (OR = 1.034) and hyperkinetic syndrome of childhood (OR = 1.05) cases were significantly more likely than controls to receive increased organic-Hg exposure. This study provides new epidemiological evidence supporting a significant relationship between increasing organic-Hg exposure from TCVs and the subsequent risk of an ND diagnosis."
A comparison of temporal trends in United States autism prevalence to trends in suspected environmental factors Environmental Health, 2014, Cynthia D Nevison
Summary: "Diagnosed autism prevalence has risen dramatically in the U.S over the last several decades and continued to trend upward as of birth year 2005. The increase is mainly real and has occurred mostly since the late 1980s."
A Population-Based Cohort Study of Undervaccination in 8 Managed Care Organizations Across the United States JAMA Pediatrics, January 2013, Jason M. Glanz, PhD; Sophia R. Newcomer, MPH; Komal J. Narwaney, MD, PhD; Simon J. Hambidge, MD, PhD; Matthew F. Daley, MD; Nicole M. Wagner, MPH
Summary: "Children who were undervaccinated because of pa- rental choice had lower rates of outpatient visits, lower rates of ED [emergency room] encounters.. undervaccinated children had lower outpatient visit rates compared with children who were age-appropriately vaccinated."
Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) 2013: Unveiling the pathogenic, clinical and diagnostic aspects Journal of Autoimmunity, October 2013, Carlo Perricone, Serena Colafrancesco, Roei D. Mazor, Alessandra Soriano, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Summary: "The data herein illustrate the critical role of environmental factors in the induction of autoimmunity. Indeed, it is the interplay of genetic susceptibility and environment that is the major player for the initiation of breach of tolerance. Several neurologic demyelinating diseases have been reported following vaccination, the main being Guillaine Barre? syndrome (GBS). Another demyelinating disease associated with vaccines is the acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). This is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system frequently occurring post-vaccination. Rabies, diphtheria tetanus polio, smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, Japanese B encephalitis, pertussis, influ-enza, hepatitis B, and the Hog vaccines have been called to be involved."
Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity in humans and animals, vaccine adjuvants, and autoimmunity Immunol Res, 2013, Chris Shaw, L. Tomljenovic
Summary: "In young children, a highly significant correlation exists between the number of pediatric aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines administered and the rate of autism spectrum disorders. Many of the features of aluminum- induced neurotoxicity may arise, in part, from autoimmune reactions, as part of the ASIA syndrome. Aluminum is added to vaccines to help the vaccine work more effectively, but unlike dietary aluminum which will usually clear rapidly from the body, aluminum used in vaccines and injected is designed to provide a long-lasting cellular exposure. Thus, the problem with vaccine- derived aluminum is really twofold: It drives the immune response even in the absence of a viral or bacterial threat and it can make its way into the central nervous system. It is not really a matter of much debate that aluminum in various forms can be neurotoxic."
Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (Shoenfeld's syndrome): clinical and immunological spectrum Expert Rev. Clin. Immunol. 2013 Olga Vera-Lastra, Gabriela Medina, Maria Del-Pilar Cruz Dominguez, Luis J Jara
Summary: "The activation of the immune system by adjuvants, a desirable effect, could trigger manifestations of autoimmunity or autoimmune disease. Recently, a new syndrome was introduced, autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA), that includes postvaccination phenomena, macrophagic myofasciitis, Gulf War syndrome and siliconosis. Various adjuvants used in vaccines enhance a specific immune response against antigens and may produce autoimmunity and AID both in experimental models and humans. The clinical and laboratory data support an association between adjuvants and autoimmune diseases."
A two-phase study evaluating the relationship between Thimerosal-containing vaccine administration and the risk for an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in the United States Translational Neurodegeneration, David A. Geier, Brian S. Hooker, Janet K. Kern, Paul G. King, Lisa K. Sykes, Mark R. Geier
Summary: "The present study provides new epidemiological evidence supporting an association between increasing organic-Hg [mercury] exposure from Thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines and the subsequent risk of ASD [autism] diagnosis."
Human exposure to aluminium Environmental Science Processes & Impacts, 2013, Christopher Exley
Summary: "The immunopotency of aluminium has been known for at least 100 years and still today forms the basis for the use of aluminium salts as adjuvants in vaccinations and allergy therapies. What is then surprising is the uncertainty regarding their mechanism of action and burgeoning evidence of their toxicity in potentially susceptible individuals."
Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine and Primary Ovarian Failure: Another Facet of the Autoimmune/Inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 2013, Selena Colafrancesco, Carlo Perricone, Lucija Tomljenovic, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Summary: "We documented here the evidence of the potential of the HPV vaccine to trigger a life-disabling autoimmune condition. The increasing number of similar reports of post HPV vaccine-linked autoimmunity and the uncertainty of long-term clinical benefits of HPV vaccination are a matter of public health that warrants further rigorous inquiry."
Relative trends in hospitalizations and mortality among infants by the number of vaccine doses and age, based on the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), 1990-2010 Human and Experimental Toxicology, 2012, GS Goldman, NZ Miller
Summary: "The hospitalization rate increased linearly from 11.0% (107 of 969) for 2 doses to 23.5% (661 of 2817) for 8 doses and decreased linearly from 20.1% (154 of 765) for children aged < 0.1 year to 10.7% (86 of 801) for children aged 0.9 year. Our findings show a positive correlation between the number of vaccine doses administered and the percentage of hospitalizations and deaths. Since vaccines are given to millions of infants annually, it is imperative that health authorities have scientific data from synergistic toxicity studies on all combinations of vaccines that infants might receive. Finding ways to increase vaccine safety should be the highest priority."
The spectrum of ASIA: 'Autoimmune (Auto-inflammatory) Syndrome induced by Adjuvants' Lupus, 2012, N Agmon-Levin, GRV Hughes, Y Shoenfeld
Summary: "It seems that the role of adjuvants [aluminum in vaccines] in the pathogenesis of immune-mediated diseases can no longer be ignored, and the medical community must look towards producing safer adjuvants. Another cornerstone of ASIA is the complex interaction between autoimmunity and adjuvanted vaccines. On the one hand vaccines are beneficial for the vast majority of subjects including those who suffer from autoimmune-rheumatic diseases as delineated in this issue by van Assen and Bijl.16 On the other hand in a small minority of individuals vaccine can trigger the appearance of autoan- tibodies as documented by Vista et al.17 and Perdan-Pirkmajer et al.18 Moreover, a link between immunization and defined autoimmune diseases has been reported elsewhere and herein."
Neurologic adverse events following vaccination Prog Health Sci, 2012, Sienkiewicz D., Ku?ak W., Okurowska-Zawada B., Paszko-Patej G.
Summary: "Thus, it is not reasonable to assume that manipulation of the immune system through an increasing number of vaccinations during critical periods of brain development will not result in adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. European countries have different models of vaccination that have been modified in recent decades. In Scandinavian countries, which have the lowest infant mortality, vaccinations are voluntary and infants receive their first vaccination at 3 months of age. In the first year of life, they receive 9 recommended vaccinations, and at 18 months - MMR. The acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) is used, as well as IPV. BCG and Hepatitis B vaccines are administered to children from high risk groups. Similar vaccination schedules exist in other European countries, where the vaccination of neonates was abandoned and a ban on the use of thimerosal in vaccines was introduced. Note also that Scandinavian countries have the lowest rates of autism compared to other developed countries in which children are vaccinated much earlier and with greater number of vaccines."
Mechanisms of aluminum adjuvant toxicity and autoimmunity in pediatric populations, Lupus, 2012, L Tomljenovic, CA Shaw
Summary: "Immune challenges during early development, including those vaccine-induced, can lead to permanent detrimental alterations of the brain and immune function. Experimental evidence also shows that simultaneous administration of as little as two to three immune adjuvants can overcome genetic resistance to autoimmunity. In spite of the widespread agreement that vaccines are largely safe and serious adverse complications are extremely rare, a close scrutiny of the scientific literature does not support this view. For example, to date, the clinical trials that could adequately address vaccine safety issues have not been con- ducted (i.e., comparing health outcomes in vaccinated versus non-vaccinated children). Infants and young children should not be viewed as ''small adults.'' Their unique physiology makes them much more vulnerable to noxious environ- mental insults in comparison with the adult population. In spite of this, children are routinely exposed to much higher levels of Al vaccine adjuvants than adults, even though adequate safety data on these compounds are lacking. That Al vaccine adjuvants can induce significant autoimmune conditions in humans can hardly be disputed, although still debatable is how common such side effects are. However, the existing data (or lack thereof) raise questions on whether the current vaccines aimed at pediatric populations can be accepted as having adequate safety profiles. Because infants and children represent those who may be most at risk for complications following vaccination, a more rigorous evaluation of potential vaccine-related adverse health impacts in pediatric populations than what has been provided to date is urgently needed."
Risk of Febrile Seizures and Epilepsy After Vaccination With Diphtheria, Tetanus, Acellular Pertussis, Inactivated Poliovirus, and Haemophilus Influenzae Type b JAMA 2012, Yuelian Sun, Jakob Christensen, Anders Hviid, Jiong Li
Summary: "DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccination was associated with an increased risk of febrile seizures on the day of the first 2 vaccinations given at 3 and 5 months."
Do aluminum vaccine adjuvants contribute to the rising prevalence of autism? J Inorg Biochem. Tomljenovic L, Shaw CA.
Summary: "Dysfunctional immunity and impaired brain function are core deficits in ASD. Aluminum (Al), the most commonly used vaccine adjuvant, is a demonstrated neurotoxin and a strong immune stimulator. Hence, adjuvant Al has the potential to induce neuroimmune disorders. The application of the Hill's criteria to these data indicates that the correlation between Al in vaccines and ASD may be causal. Because children represent a fraction of the population most at risk for complications following exposure to Al, a more rigorous evaluation of Al adjuvant safety seems warranted.. By satisfying eight of the Hill's criteria for establishing causality applicable to our study, we show that Al-adjuvanted vaccines may be a significant etiological factor in the rising prevalence of ASD in the Western world. We also show that children from countries with the highest ASD prevalence appear to have a much higher exposure to Al from vaccines, particularly at 2 months of age."
Maternal Thimerosal Exposure Results in Aberrant Cerebellar Oxidative Stress, Thyroid Hormone Metabolism, and Motor Behavior in Rat Pups; Sex- and Strain-Dependent Effects Cerebellum, 2012, Z. L. Sulkowski & T. Chen & S. Midha & A. M. Zavacki & Elizabeth M. Sajdel-Sulkowska
Summary: "Our data indicate that maternal TM exposure results in a delayed auditory maturation and impaired motor learning in rat pups. Factors that may contribute to these abnormalities include increased cerebellar oxidative stress and decreased D2 activity resulting local intracerebellar T3 deficiency and altered TH-dependent gene expression. Indeed, provided here is the first evidence of altered TH-dependent gene expression following TM exposure. Our data thus demonstrate a negative neurodevelopmental impact of perinatal TM exposure, which appears to be both strain- and sex-dependent. Although, additional studies are needed, data derived from TM exposure in rats may provide clues relevant to understanding neurodevelopmental consequences of TM exposure in humans.
Hepatitis B Vaccination of Male Neonates and Autism Diagnosis, NHIS 1997-2002 Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, April 2010, Carolyn Gallagher and Melody Goodman
Summary: "Boys vaccinated as neonates had threefold greater odds for autism diagnosis compared to boys never vaccinated or vaccinated after the first month of life. Findings suggest that U.S. male neonates vaccinated with the hepatitis B vac- cine prior to 1999 (from vaccination record) had a threefold higher risk for parental report of autism diagnosis compared to boys not vaccinated as neonates during that same time period."
The immunobiology of aluminium adjuvants: how do they really work? Trends in Immunology 2010, Christopher Exley, Peter Siesjo, Hakan Eriksson
Summary: "Aluminium adjuvants potentiate the immune response, thereby ensuring the potency and efficacy of typically sparingly available antigen. Their concomitant critical importance in mass vaccination programmes may have prompted recent intense interest in understanding how they work and their safety. Progress in these areas is stymied, however, by a lack of accessible knowledge pertaining to the bioinorganic chemistry of aluminium adjuvants, and, consequently, the inappropriate application and interpretation of experimental models of their mode of action.. In relation to this possible 'indirect adjuvanticity' there are burgeoning examples in the scientific literature of aluminium salts inducing sen- sitization to substances that might not normally be considered as antigens. For example, such effects may contribute towards allergies to foods"
Influence of pediatric vaccines on amygdala growth and opioid ligand binding in rhesus macaque infants: A pilot study Acta Neurobiol Exp, 2010, Laura Hewitson, Brian J. Lopresti, Carol Stott
Summary: "The data suggest that vaccine exposure may be asso- ciated with significant disturbances in central opioidergic pathways in this model... Volumetric analyses identified significantly greater total brain volume in exposed compared with unexposed animals at both measured time points. These results raise the possibility that multiple vaccine exposures during the previous 3-4 months may have had a significant impact on brain growth and development."
Sorting out the spinning of autism: heavy metals and the question of incidence Acta Neurobiol, 2010 Mary Catherine DeSoto and Robert T. Hitlan
Summary: "In this paper, we argue that increasingly over the past decade, positions that deny a link to environmental toxins and autism are based on relatively weak science and are disregarding the bulk of scientific literature. The question about toxic exposure and autism is open, with the weight of evidence favoring a connection that is not well understood. Although it is not possible to say with certainty, it seems likely that the connection would be mediated by genetic susceptibility and ability to detoxify. That is, some people have genotypes that confer higher susceptibility to toxic exposures. If so, then 50 years ago few people would have had enough toxic exposure to have the neurological changes that result in autism."
Interindividual variations in the efficacy and toxicity of vaccines Toxicology 2010, Thomas C, Moridani M
Summary: "A number of currently available vaccines have shown significant differences in the magnitude of immune responses and toxicity in individuals undergoing vaccination. A number of factors may be involved in the variations in immune responses, which include age, gender, race, amount and quality of the antigen, the dose administered and to some extent the route of administration, and genetics of immune system. Hence, it becomes imperative that researchers have tools such as genomics and proteomics at their disposal to predict which set of population is more likely to be non-responsive or develop toxicity to vaccines.. With the increasing number of side effects associated with a number of vaccines reported over the years, it has become imperative to develop new technologies that can effectively assist in the development and evaluation of vaccines for efficacy and toxicity."
Aluminum hydroxide injections lead to motor deficits and motor neuron degeneration Journal of Inorg Biochem, February 2010, Christopher A. Shaw, Michael S. Petrik
Summary: "Aluminum-treated mice showed significantly increased apoptosis of motor neurons and increases in reactive astrocytes and microglial proliferation within the spinal cord and cortex. Morin stain detected the presence of aluminum in the cytoplasm of motor neurons with some neurons also testing positive for the presence of hyper-phosphorylated tau protein, a pathological hallmark of various neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia. A second series of experiments was conducted on mice injected with six doses of aluminum hydroxide. Behavioural analyses in these mice revealed significant impairments in a number of motor functions as well as diminished spatial memory capacity. The demonstrated neurotoxicity of aluminum hydroxide and its relative ubiquity as an adjuvant suggest that greater scrutiny by the scientific community is warranted. Overall, the results reported here mirror previous work that has clearly demonstrated that aluminum, in both oral and injected forms, can be neurotoxic."
Delayed acquisition of neonatal reflexes in newborn primates receiving a thimerosal-containing Hepatitis B vaccine: Influence of gestational age and birth weight Neurotoxicology, Sep 2009 Laura Hewitson et. al.
Summary: "In summary, this study provides preliminary evidence of abnormal early neurodevelopmental responses in male infant rhesus macaques receiving a single dose of Th-containing HB vaccine at birth and indicates that further investigation is merited."
Long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminum hydroxide is associated with chronic cognitive dysfunction Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 2009, Couette M1, Boisse MF, Maison P, Brugieres P, Cesaro P, Chevalier X, Gherardi RK, Bachoud-Levi AC, Authier FJ.
Summary: "In conclusion, long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminum hydroxide within the body assessed by MMF is associated with cognitive dysfunction, not solely due to chronic pain, fatigue and depression. In conclusion, this work is the first firm demonstration that cognitive dysfunction is a central feature in MMF, this dysfunction being much more frequent and severe than suspected by routine neurological evaluation. Instead of being a non-specific bystander effect of pain, fatigue or depression, MACD seems to reflect an underlying organic, inflammatory or toxic, brain involvement."
Allergic Disease and Atopic Sensitization in Children in Relation to Measles Vaccination and Measles Infection Pediatrics 2009 Rosenlund H1, Bergstrom A, Alm JS, Swartz J, Scheynius A, van Hage M, Johansen K, Brunekreef B, von Mutius E, Ege MJ, Riedler J, Braun-Fahrlander C, Waser M, Pershagen G; PARSIFAL Study Group.
Summary: "However, in these analyses, measles infection [natural measles] was inversely associated with any allergic symptom or physician's diagnosis of allergy."
Hepatitis B triple series vaccine and developmental disability in US children aged 1-9 years Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry, September 2008,?Carolyn Gallagher and Melody Goodman
Summary: "This study investigated the association between vaccination with the Hepatitis B triple series vaccine. The odds of receiving Special Education were approximately nine times as great for vaccinated boys (n 1/4 46) as for unvaccinated boys (n 1/4 7), after adjustment for confounders. This study found statistically significant evidence to suggest that boys in United States who were vaccinated with the triple series Hepatitis B vaccine, were more susceptible to developmental disability than were unvaccinated boys."
Delay in diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus vaccination is associated with a reduced risk of childhood asthma? Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 2008, Kara L. McDonald, MS, Shamima I. Huq, BS
Summary: "Early childhood immunizations have been viewed as promoters of asthma development by stimulating a T(H)2-type immune response or decreasing microbial pressure, which shifts the balance between T(H)1 and T(H)2 immunity. Among 11, 531 children who received at least 4 doses of DPT, the risk of asthma was reduced to (1/2) in children whose first dose of DPT was delayed by more than 2 months."
Thimerosal exposure in infants and neurodevelopmental disorders: An assessment of computerized medical records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink Journal of the Neurological Sciences, March 2008, Heather A. Young, David A. Geier, Mark R. Geier
Summary: "Consistent significantly increased rate ratios were observed for autism, autism spectrum disorders, tics, attention deficit disorder, and emotional disturbances with Hg exposure from TCVs. By contrast, none of the control outcomes had significantly increased rate ratios with Hg exposure from TCVs."
Post-vaccination encephalomyelitis: Literature review and illustrative case Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, 2008, Huynh W1, Cordato DJ, Kehdi E, Masters LT, Dedousis C.
Summary: "Post-infectious and post-immunisation encephalomyelitis make up about three-quarters of cases, where the timing of a febrile event is associated with the onset of neurological disease..Post-vaccination Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis has been associated with several vaccines such as rabies, diphtheria-tetanus-polio, smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, Japanese B encephalitis, pertussis, influenza, hepatitis B, and the Hog vaccine. We review ADEM with particular emphasis on vaccination as the precipitating factor."
Comparison of Blood and Brain Mercury Levels in Infant Monkeys Exposed to Methylmercury or Vaccines Containing Thimerosal Environmental Health Perspectives, August 2005, Thomas M. Burbacher, Danny D. Shen, Noelle Liberato, Kimberly S. Grant, Elsa Cernichiari, and Thomas Clarkson
Summary: The mercury used in vaccines (and still in the flu vaccine given to pregnant women) is far more toxic than the mercury found in fish, because it stays in the brain at much higher levels. "Data from the present study support the prediction that, although little accumulation of Hg in the blood occurs over time with repeated vaccinations, accumulation of Hg in the brain of infants will occur. Thus, conclusion regarding the safety of thimerosal drawn from blood Hg clearance data in human infants receiving vaccines may not be valid, given the significantly slower half-life of Hg in the brain as observed in the infant macaques. There was a much higher proportion of inorganic Hg in the brain of thimerosal monkeys than in the brains of MeHg monkeys (up to 71% vs. 10%). Absolute inorganic Hg concentrations in the brains of the thimerosal-exposed monkeys were approximately twice that of the MeHg monkeys."
Thimerosal Neurotoxicity is Associated with Glutathione Depletion: Protection with Glutathione Precursors Neurotoxicology, Jan 2005, S. Jill James, PhD
Summary: "Thimerosal is an antiseptic containing 49.5% ethyl mercury that has been used for years as a preservative in many infant vaccines and in flu vaccines. Environmental methyl mercury has been shown to be highly neurotoxic, especially to the developing brain. Because mercury has a high affinity for thiol (sulfhydryl (-SH)) groups, the thiol-containing antioxidant, glutathione (GSH), provides the major intracellular defense against mercury-induced neurotoxicity. Cultured neuroblastoma cells were found to have lower levels of GSH and increased sensitivity to thimerosal toxicity compared to glioblastoma cells that have higher basal levels of intracellular GSH. Thimerosal-induced cytotoxicity was associated with depletion of intracellular GSH in both cell lines. Although Thimerosal has been recently removed from most children's vaccines, it is still present in flu vaccines given to pregnant women, the elderly, and to children in developing countries."
Activation of methionine synthase by insulin-like growth factor-1 and dopamine: a target for neurodevelopmental toxins and thimerosal Molecular Psychiatry, 2004, M Waly, H Oltaneu, R Banerjee, S-W Choi, JB Mason, BS Parker, S Sukumar, S Shim, A Sharma
Summary: "The ethylmercury-containing preservative thimerosal inhibited both IGF-1- and dopamine-stimulated methylation with an IC50 of 1nM and eliminated MS activity. Our findings outline a novel growth factor signaling pathway that regulates MS activity and thereby modulates methylation reactions, including DNA methylation. The potent inhibition of this pathway by ethanol, lead, mercury, aluminum and thimerosal suggest that it may be an important target of neurodevelopmental toxins."
Abnormal Measles-Mumps-Rubella Antibodies and CNS Autoimmunity in Children with Autism J Biomed Sci, 2002, Vijendra K. Singh Sheren X. Lin Elizabeth Newell Courtney Nelson
Summary: "And, as described herein, autistic children showed a serological correlation between MMR and brain autoimmunity, i.e., over 90% of MMR antibody-positive autistic sera also had autoantibodies to brain MBP. This is quite an intriguing observation in favor of a connection between atypical measles infection and autism; an atypical infection usually refers to infection that occurs in the absence of a rash. An atypical measles infection in the absence of a rash and unusual neurological symptoms was recently described to suggest the existence of a variant MV in children and adults . In light of these new findings, we suggest that a considerable proportion of autistic cases may result from an atypical measles infection that does not produce a rash but causes neurological symptoms in some children. The source of this virus could be a variant MV or it could be the MMR vaccine."
Macrophagic myofasciitis lesions assess long-term persistence of vaccine derived aluminum hydroxide in muscle Brain, 2001 R.K. Gherardi, M. Coquet, P. Cherin, L. Belec, P. Moretto, P.A. Dreyfus
Summary: "Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an emerging condition of unknown cause, detected in patients with diffuse arthromyalgias and fatigue, and characterized by muscle infiltration by granular periodic acid-Schiff's reagent-positive macrophages and lymphocytes. Intracytoplasmic inclusions have been observed in macrophages of some patients. To assess their significance, electron microscopy was performed in 40 consecutive cases and chemical analysis was done by microanalysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Inclusions were constantly detected and corresponded to aluminium hydroxide, an immunostimulatory compound frequently used as a vaccine adjuvant."
Detection and Sequencing of Measles Virus from Peripheral Mononuclear Cells from Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Autism Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 2000, Hisashi Kawashima, Takayuki Mori, Yasuyo Kashiwagi, Kouji Takekuma
Summary: "Additionally, a new syndrome has been reported in children with autism who exhibited developmental regression and gastrointestinal symptoms (autistic enterocolitis), in some cases soon after MMR vaccine. The sequences obtained from the patients with ulcerative colitis and children with autism were consistent with being vaccine strains. The results were concordant with the exposure history of the patients. Persistence of measles virus was confirmed in PBMC in some patients with chronic intestinal inflammation."
Annual Summary of Vital Statistics: Trends in the Health of Americans During the 20th Century, Pediatrics, December 2000, Bernard Guyer, MD, Mary Anne Freeman, MA, Donna M. Strobino, PhD, Edward J. Sondik, PhD
Summary: "Thus vaccination does not account for the impressive declines in mortality seen in the first half of the century...nearly 90% of the decline in infectious disease mortality among US children occurred before 1940, when few antibiotics or vaccine were available."
Iatrogenic exposure to mercury after hepatitis B vaccination in preterm infants The Journal of Pediatrics, May 2000, Gregory V. Stajich, PharmD, Gaylord P. Lopez, PharmD, ABAT, Sokei W. Harry, MBBS, MPH, William R. Sexson, MD
Summary: "Thimerosal, a derivative of mercury, is used as a preservative in hepatitis B vaccines. We measured total mercury levels before and after the administration of this vaccine in 15 preterm and 5 term infants. Comparison of pre- and post-vaccination mercury levels showed a significant increase in both preterm and term infants after vaccination. Additionally, post-vaccination mercury levels were significantly higher in preterm infants as compared with term infants. Because mercury is known to be a potential neurotoxin to infants, further study of its pharmacodynamics is warranted."
Effects of Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis or Tetanus Vaccination on Allergies and Allergy-Related Respiratory Symptoms Among Children and Adolescents in the United States Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 2000, Eric Hurwitz and Hal Morgenstern
Summary: "Asthma and other allergic hypersensitivity reactions and related symptoms may be caused, in part, by the delayed effects of DTP or tetanus vaccination. Because the proportion of US children who have received at least 1 dose of DTP vaccine approaches 100%, the number of allergies and allergy-related conditions attributable to DTP or tetanus vaccination in the United States may be very high. For example, assuming that the estimated vaccination effect is unbiased, 50% of diagnosed asthma cases (2.93 million) in US children and adolescents would be prevented if the DTP or tetanus vaccination was not administered."
Increased risk of developmental neurologic impairment after high exposure to thimerosal-containing vaccine in first month of life. Proceedings of the Epidemic Intelligence Service Annual Conference, April 2000, Verstraeten T, Davis RL, Gu D, DeStefano F.
Summary: "This analysis suggests that high exposure to ethylmercury from thimerosal-containing vaccines in the first month of life increases the risk of subsequent development of neurologic development impairment."
Trends in Infectious Disease Mortality in the United States During the 20th Century JAMA, January 6, 1999, Gregory L. Armstrong, MD, Laura A. Conn, MPH, Robert W. Pinner, MD
Summary: "During the first 8 decades of the 20th century, the infectious disease mortality rate in the United States declined substantially...Improvements in living conditions, sanitation, and medical care probably accounted for this trend."
Detection of Measles Virus RNA in Urine Specimens from Vaccine Recipients, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Sept 1995, Paul A. Rota, Ali S. Khan, Edison Durigon, Thomas Yuron, and William Bellini
Summary: "For the study, daily urine samples were obtained from either 15- month-old children or young adults following measles immunization. Overall, measles virus RNA was detected in 10 of 12 children during the 2-week sampling period. In some cases, measles virus RNA was detected as early as 1 day or as late as 14 days after vaccination. Measles virus RNA was also detected in the urine samples from all four of the young adults between 1 and 13 days after vaccination. This assay will enable continued studies of the shedding and transmission of measles virus and, it is hoped, will provide a rapid means to identify measles infection, especially in mild or asymptomatic cases."
In a comparison of lymphoblast cells from children with autism and matched non-autistic controls, a significantly higher number of “autistic” cell lines showed a reduction in ATP-linked respiration, maximal respiratory capacity and reserve capacity when exposed to mercury as compared to control cell lines. This supports the notion that a subset of individuals with autism may be vulnerable to mitochondrial dysfunction via thimerosal exposure.
This review article includes a section on numerous papers linking thimerosal exposure via infant vaccines to autism. This also includes a critique of studies from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control that deny any type of link.
Blood levels of mercury and lead were much higher in autistic children as compared to normal controls. Upon chelation, the blood levels of these heavy metals decreased and autistic symptoms improved.
This review article shows methodological flaws in six separate CDC studies claiming that thimerosal does not cause autism. In three specific instances (Madsen et al. 2003, Verstraeten et al. 2003 and Price et al. 2010) evidence of malfeasance on the part of CDC scientists is shown. Background data (not reported in print) from these three publications suggest a strong link between thimerosal exposure and autism.
A comparison of autism reports from thimerosal-containing versus thimerosal free DTaP formulations showed a relative risk of 7.67 for autism when children were exposed to thimerosal via the DTaP vaccine.
This protein (zinc-metalloprotease-BDNF) is upregulated by the presence of organic mercurials including thimerosal and it is responsible for large brains (megalencephaly) and corticol hyperconnectivity in children with autism.
This study included a comparison of VAERS (Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System) reports of autism following DTaP (Thimerosal containing and Thimerosal free). In addition the link between thimerosal containing HepB vaccine administration and autism was elucidated with a dose-dependent effect, using the CDC’s Vaccine Safety Datalink.
This paper showed significant levels of oxidative stress in children with autism with comorbid gastrointestinal problems. Thimerosal as well as vaccines in general contributes markedly to the amount of oxidative stress sustained physiologically.
This publication shows that ASD prevalence rates in Denmark decreased by 30% of the time period from 1994 to 2004 after Denmark removed thimerosal from their vaccines in 1992. This is directly counter to the fraudulent CDC Madsen et al. 2003 publication.
This paper shows that peripheral blood lymphocytes specific to antibody based immunity, from autistic subjects and their unaffected siblings, were much more sensitivity and exhibited higher rates of cell death than those of unaffected, unrelated control children. Thimerosal levels required to kill the cells from the subjects were less than 40% of those required to kill the cells of unrelated, non-autistic controls.
The study authors determined that since excessive accumulation of extracellular glutamate is linked with excitotoxicity, data implies that neonatal exposure to thimerosal-containing vaccines might induce excitotoxic brain injuries, leading to neurodevelopmental disorders.
Thimerosal significantly damaged the mitochondrial membranes and DNA in human astrocytes (which are also implicated in autism spectrum disorder). The enzyme caspase-3, which signals cell death was upregulated by 5 times in the presence of thimerosal and mitochondrial membranes showed significant depolarization.
Rat pups were exposed to thimerosal levels in utero (similar to the maternal flu shot) and exhibited aberrant brain oxidative stress (in the cerebellum) as well as autistic like behaviors. These effects were reserved primarily to males in the “Spontaneously Hypersensitive Rat” strain.
This age and gender matched cohort study of 28 autism cases and 28 controls showed significantly higher urinary porphyrin levels in children with autism, specifically in those porphyrins (hexacarboxyporphyrin and precoproporphyrin) associated with mercury toxicity.
The study authors investigated the National Health Inventory Survey (a very large national database) and found that boys receiving the full HepB series were 3 times as likely to receive an autism diagnosis as compared to those not receiving any HepB vaccine (statistically significant). Non-white boys had a significantly worse outcome.
The study authors determined that in combination with the brain pathology observed in patients diagnosed with autism, the present study helps to support the possible biological plausibility for how low-dose exposure to mercury from thimerosal-containing vaccines may be associated with autism.
Mercury toxicity was assessed in a cohort of 28 children with autism. The cohort showed significantly higher levels of urinary porphyrins associated with mercury toxicity as well as decreased plasma levels of reduced glutathione, cysteine and sulfate, also indicating active mercury toxicity and an inability to detoxify heavy metals.
The study authors determined that significantly increased risk ratios were observed for autism and autism spectrum disorders as a result of exposure to mercury from Thimerosal-containing vaccines using the CDC’s Vaccine Safety Datalink.
Mothers receiving thimerosal via Rho(D) immune globulin injection saw a significantly higher rate of autism in the children exposed to mercury in utero. Overall, twice as much autism was seen in the exposed group of children versus the non-exposed control group.
Children with autism showed significantly higher levels of mercury in their baby teeth than non-autistic controls, indicated marked exposure to mercury during gestation and early infancy.
Children with autism were twice as likely as non-autistic controls to be born from mothers who had Rh incompatibilities with the developing fetus during pregnancy and thus were exposed to thimerosal via Rho(D) immune globulin injections during pregnancy.
This case series of eight autistic patients showed a history of excretion of significant amounts of mercury post chelation challenge, biochemical evidence of decreased function in their glutathione pathways and had no known significant mercury exposure except from Thimerosal-containing vaccines/Rho(D)-immune globulin preparations; and had alternate causes for their regressive ASDs ruled out.
This study is a correction to a previous study that claimed mercury levels in children’s blood did not correlate with the presence of autism. In this reanalysis, Desoto shows clearly that a statistically significant link appears between blood mercury levels and autistic disorder in children.
This study shows significantly increased risk ratios for autism, speech disorders, mental retardation, infantile spasms, and thinking abnormalities reported to VAERS found following thimerosal-containing DTP vaccines in comparison to thimerosal-free DTPH vaccines, with minimal bias or systematic error.
Children with autism showed statistically elevated levels of urinary porphyrins that specifically show mercury toxicity due to environmental exposure. This was a large study of 106 children with autism compared to children with Asperger’s and control children. Neither the Asperger’s or control group showed elevations in urinary porphyrin levels.
The author of this study links large brain size with neuroinflammation associated with toxic heavy metal exposure. The author posits that this type of inflammation could be treatable and increase the success of medical interventions for autism.
Infant macaques retained significantly higher levels of elemental mercury in their brain tissue when exposed to thimerosal in infant vaccines versus methylmercury. The half-life of the mercury associated with thimerosal exposure was indefinite as it lasted much longer than the overall testing period.
Thimerosal at levels comparable to infant exposure via vaccines caused neuronal cell death through changing the mitochondrial microenvironment. Thimerosal induced cell death was associated with mitochondrial depolarization and a significant level of reactive oxidative stress intracellularly.
This study investigated the cellular response to thimerosal toxicity including a very profound decrease in intracellular glutathione levels. Earlier research by this same author showed that autistic children had significantly lower glutathione levels as compared to neurotypical control children.
Children with autism have a diminished methylation capacity leading to higher sustained levels of oxidation stress, due to deficiencies primarily in glutathione. Vaccines produce a very high level of oxidation stress to the body upon administration.
This study shows that a novel growth factor signalling pathway regulates methionine synthase(MS) activity and thereby modulates methylation reactions. The potent inhibition of this pathway by ethanol, lead, mercury, aluminum and thimerosal suggests that it may be an important target of neurodevelopmental toxins.
Specific mouse strains showing autoimmune disease sensitivity exhibited autistic behaviors and autistic-like brain pathologies after being exposed to thimerosal. Normal strains of mice did not exhibit these behaviors or neurological features.
This paper shows that mothers of children with autism had a statistically significant greater level of Rh-factor disease than mothers in the general population. Rh-factor disease is an indicator of thimerosal exposure as, at the time, all available anti-Rho IgG (therapeutic drug for Rh-factor disease) doses given to these mothers contained at least 12.5 micrograms of mercury via thimerosal.
This study shows that autistic children are poor secreters ofmercury via hair, which a normal physiological mode of mercury detoxification. Thus, autistic children subjected to mercury exposure would likely experience a longer, sustained toxicological effect.
The study elucidates “little” difference between methylmercury and ethylmercury (breakdown product of Thimerosal) toxicity to cells counter to CDC sponsored studies that declared that ethylmercury was “safe mercury.”
This study shows that thimerosal causes cell death in T lymphocytes (immune cells) via a mitochondrial depolarization mechanism.
This paper links thimerosal exposure via infant vaccines to autism based on the pathologies associated with autism as well as the timing of autistic regression. Emphasis is made on the total mercury exposure to infants in the vaccination schedule used in the 1990’s and early 2000’s.
Parallels are made between the signs and symptoms of mercury poisoning and infantile autism. A comprehensive analysis is included on the comordities of autism and their corresponding analogs due to mercury exposure.
This original version of the Verstraeten et al. paper (that was ultimately “watered down” before it was published in final form in 2003) shows risks of autism at 7.6-fold for children exposed to thimerosal in the first month of life compared to unexposed controls.